Whole grains, such as brown rice, may help weight loss by decreasing calories retained during digestion. The grain food group includes rice, oats, wheat, and barley.
While whole grains contain the whole-grain kernel and include brown rice, oatmeal, and whole-wheat flour, refined grains are starches that are processed and milled to remove the bran and germ to prolong their shelf life. Examples of refined grains include white rice, white bread, and white flour.
Milling empties the starch of dietary fiber, iron, and B vitamins. Although iron and B vitamins can be added back into the refined grains, the fiber is not often reintroduced.
Whole grains increase metabolism, may help promote weight loss
In the new research, investigators conducted a study over 8 weeks that included 81 men and women aged between 40 and 65. All food was provided to the participants over the course of the study and included either whole grains or refined grains. Participants were asked only to consume the food provided, return any uneaten food, and continue with their usual levels of physical activity.
“We provided all food to ensure that the composition of the diets differed only in grain source,” says senior author Susan B. Roberts, Ph.D., senior scientist and director of the Energy Metabolism Laboratory at the USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging.
For the first 2 weeks, all participants ate the same type of food, and the calorie needs of each individual were determined. The participants were then randomly assigned to either a group that included whole grains or a group with refined grains.
The differences between the whole-grain diet and refined-grain diet were mostly in grain and fiber content. Type of food, meal structure, and energy and macronutrient composition were similar in both groups.